College of humanities and social sciences.



Department of Sociology.  

Names:                                                 Registration No:                       Signature

OKELO O. LAWRENCE.                         C01/0022/2010                         ____________

LIYALA IRINE                                         C01/0057/2010                         ____________

MWEBIA KANANU FAITH                      C01/0436/2010                          ____________


Course CODE                                                 : CSO 312.

Course title                                                    : MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY.

Lecturer                                                          : Dr. KEN OUKO.

Date of submission                                      : August 19th 2013.


v  Provide any five typical excuses most people use to avoid/postpone the HIV/AIDS test.

v  What are the five typical excuses men use to indulge in non-protective sex even before a HIV/AIDS test?

v  Provide any five explanations as to why you think women tend to consent to non-protective sex with their male partners despite lingering doubt about their HIV/AIDS status.


  1. 1.       Provide any five typical excuses most people use to avoid/postpone the HIV/AIDS test.

        i.            Psychological stress

Many people avoid HIV test on the basis of fear for the unknown. A question that many ask themselves is; what if I test positive? Testing positive carries with it a psychological stress because HIV has no cure and people perceive it as a death sentence. This keeps people from undergoing test.

People who have been diagnosed with HIV and are on drugs undergo a tight schedule of taking drugs and visiting clinics. Many people feel they cannot be able to do it and so they try to avoid it by not testing.

      ii.            Machine error

In many cases, there are cases where a person has been tested positive, in their next visit, they test negative. This has derailed the confidence of many people to an extent that they do not care about getting tested because to many, such errors translates to inefficiency of the whole process.

    iii.            Improper pre-test counseling

In a case where the pre-testing counseling is not properly done, the worries about HIV remain inherent to the individual to an extent that many fear undergoing the HIV test.

     iv.            Fear of needles/sight of blood

Some people have pre-formed phobias against needles or blood. Some fear needles so much that they can’t withstand their sight. Others on the other hand cannot withstand the sight of blood. This makes it so difficult for them to attend testing since the two are always present.

       v.            Uninformed Pre-test judgments

Most people carry out evaluation about their HIV status on the basis of their faithfulness, some reason that they always use protection, some say they are not sexually active, some claim they have never been at risk for infection. These may influence a person’s judgment to reason that they do not have need to go for HIV test.

  1. 2.       What are the five typical excuses men use to indulge in non-protective sex even before HIV/AIDS test?

                    i.            Loyalty to religion

Some religions have really advocated against the use of condoms e.g. the catholic churches. It is therefore expected that men who subscribe to such believes and who are loyal to their faith organization would not try to indulge the opposite. Therefore there would consider having sex without protection/condoms not by their own choice but as a result of the church decision.

                  ii.            Presumed safety/trust.

After seeing each other for some time, partners tend to assume it is now safe to have sex without protection. This is commonly rampant in a case where the two assume there is no third party in that relationship.

This also comes as a result of formation of some trust among partners. It is however worth noting that only an individual can hold trust to himself/herself.

                iii.            Penis size.

In a case where a man has a very small penis, there would be reluctance of using condom for fear of not fitting in it. Sometimes they think it may slip out and remain inside during the sexual intercourse.

Other men who have very big penis also fear not fitting in it and even discomfort during sexual intercourse. Most men claim they are too big to fit in a condom.

                 iv.            Condoms ruins mood

Wearing of a condom takes time. Men on the other time have a very short timeframe mood. Therefore many men fear indulging in this process as they may run out of their mood. Therefore they always come up with sorts of excuses and pressurize their partners for unprotected sex.

                   v.            Interference with sex enjoyment

Most men claim that sex with a condom is not enjoyable. They claim that condom is so slippery that if you wear it during sex, it does not give one a feeling of sex compared to sex without condom. Some people also claim condom has a nasty smell making them feel uncomfortable during sexual intercourse.

     vi.            Failure of condoms

In most cases, cases of condoms bursting during sex have been reported which eventually end up hazardous or fail the test of performing the designated function. Most people therefore have lost hope in condoms.

In other instances, some people have used condoms but still get infected in a way they cannot explain but which result from poor use and handling of condoms in process of having sex. This has made many to avoid using condoms.

               vii.            Problems  associated with the accessibility of  condoms

In rural areas, condoms are sometimes sold in shopping centres far away from some people making accessibility very difficult.

But even after acquiring the condoms, sometimes they are kept in places where they are not easily accessible; for instance, somebody keeps condoms in a bedroom but have sex in sitting room, it becomes difficult to access them.

  1. 3.       Provide any five explanations as to why you think women tend to  consent to non-protective sex with their male partners despite lingering doubt about their HIV/AIDS status.

                    i.            Fear of mistrust

In most cases those who are in a relationship tend to assume they trust each other. Therefore if a lady raises the question of using protective mechanisms, the male partner may start raising the issue of mistrust. To avoid being seen to lack trust, the female partner will give in to the call not because of her will but to make the man happy.

                  ii.            Fear of getting out of mood

Adornment of condoms is a process and though is perceived to be simple, involve strenuous activities which require time. In a case whereby a lady is left to watch as the male partner puts on the condom, a lady may undergo psychological deviation leading to a lady getting out of mood. To avoid this, a lady will just give in to unprotected sex.

                iii.            Women get swept away by the moment

Unlike men, women sometimes get carried away with the menace so called love that they loose their control. Once romanced, women tend to express greater feelings to an extent that they do not care whether a condom has been mused or not.

Women though take time o be aroused find it difficult to restrain when they finally get there. This makes it very difficult for them to resist the urge of having sex despite not having a protection mechanism.

                 iv.            Drunkenness

In most cases those who are drunk tend to loose consciousness thus cannot realize or detect that their partner have not adorned the condom.

An individual can also get a complete blackout giving the male an opportunity to take advantage of the situation. This is a case that is very common and happens to many women, either knowingly or unknowingly.

                   v.            Perceived trust

Those who have been in a relationship for a period of time or those who married may assume that it is safe to start unprotected sex. Those who have been in a relationship form some perceived trust on the partner such  that they view protection as uncalled for especially when the lady does not have a problem getting pregnant or is using other methods of avoiding pregnancy.

                 vi.            Commercial sex work/poverty.

For commercial sex workers, having unprotected sex translates higher income since some clients always pay more for such services. If the client demands for sex without a condom, then the sex worker will just give into such demands despite doubt of the client’s HIV status.

On the other hand, even a lady in a relationship may not question for protection if she benefits from a man m for fear of being dumped or losing the material gain she gets from the man.


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